History of Albania
The Albania was inhabited since prehistoric times, as various archaeological finds.The progenitors of Albanians are the Illyrians, indigenous population that occupied a very large territory, from the Danube to the Balkans. This generation has played an important role in the political events of the Mediterranean way.
The first manifestations of this civilization go back to ‘start of the second millennium BC, when they were frequent wars between tribes. That is the Illyrians were soon forced to join in alliances, so that their territory is soon transformed into a powerful state. Historical illustrious, as Demosthenes and Strabo, remember the value of these “tigers of war”. In particular Strabo, which described all the Illyrian tribes, the appointment of Albanet. Around 1000 BC, the Illyrians occupied the territory of Albania History a kingdom. The clash with Rome, which sought to extend its control over ‘Adriatic, it was inevitable: the Illyrian-Roman wars, started in 229 BC Ended in 167 BC With the victory in Rome. The Illyrian people was reduced to slavery and its territory was split into small units’ administrative. The decadence of Rome and the barbarian invasions
(V sec. – XIV century).
After the division of the Roman Empire in 395, the Albanians were assigned territories of the East. In the same year pero ‘began a tragic series of barbaric raids: Visigoths, Huns, Ostrogoths is returning in Illyria, Macedonia and Greece. Finally, toward the end of the sixth century tribes Slave of Serbs reached the Albanian territory where many established independent principalities canceling from Albanian history and much of the population, assimilating. Only South Illyrians resisted the hurricanes Time to reappear on the scene a few centuries later as the Albania.
In the X and XI began the decline of social slavery, and in its place subentravano elements characteristic of feudalism: the noble arbereshe is dropped from Byzantium and formed the principality of Arberia, the first feudal state of Albanian history. In later centuries the country – where it already From the century documented the name of “Albanians” in describing the descendants of the Illyrians – was the scene of heated rivalry for its possession between Bulgari, Venetians, Swabians, the Angevins, etc.. Until in 1389 the Turkish invaders.
The Turkish domination
I resisted local principalities united under the leadership of Prince Gjergj Kastrioti (Giorgio Kastrioti), said Skanderbeg (1405-1468), who successfully fought against the Turks, driving the ‘Albanian insurrection of the people, terrified by the methods of repressive rulers. During the fight the Albanians against the Ottomans continued to develop the process of formation of a single centralized state, and the banner of the family Kastrioti, with ‘black eagle bicipite in red, became the Albanian national flag.On the death of Skanderbej, the Albanians were dragged from the Ottoman Empire, which had never ceased to send regular armies led by the most skillful pascià Turks.
The final Ottoman occupation brought with them the ruin of the country’s economy and the decline of indigenous culture, with the destruction of cities, works of art and architecture and the conversion of most of the Muslim population. Many addressed characterized the turkish domain, but reduce it.
It was only the weakening of Turkey to the work of Russia (1877 -78) to give new strength to the Albanian separatist movement, which since 1940 had begun to take insistently first recognition of cultural and political rights of ‘Albania, and after’ independence. At this time the ‘opening of the first Albanian school (1877) and’ introduction of a common alphabet throughout the country, still in use today.
All ‘early’ 900, under the threat of dismemberment and’ annexation of the territory by the Balkan monarchies, the revolutionary forces Albanians resumed force in 1910 outbreak ‘revolt against the Turks. During the first Balkan war, and in response to incursions into Albanian territory of the enemy coalition, Ismail Qemal Bej November 28, 1912 proclaimed independence. The European powers recognized that independence, but the power entrusted to German prince William of Wied (April 1914).
Between the two wars
(1914 – 1945)
The outbreak of the First World War swept away the fragile political construction. The Italy, Greece and several other countries in the occupied Albania, whose independence was finally recognised in 1920.
Continue internal crisis laceravano pero ‘country: in 1924 it unleashed the bourgeois-democratic revolution against the reactionary landowners and a few months climbed to power a progressive government. The counterrevolution did not wait and democratic government was overthrown by reactionaries led by Ahmet Zogu, who was elected in 1925 president of the republic and in 1928 it proclaimed King (actually with dictatorial powers). Under this scheme, ‘Albania continued to be the most backward country in Europe in 1938,’ 80% of the population lived on agriculture; l ‘university education and cultural institutions lacked entirely; there health care; malaria was a social disease; l ‘average age was 38 years.
In April 1939 the ‘Albania History was occupied by troops of Mussolini. Against these Albanians opposed a heroic resistance, while creating a fabric nuclei partisans and socialist intellectuals that in 1941, under the leadership of Enver Hoxha, and in secrecy, founded the Albanian Communist Party.
After the withdrawal of German troops (proclamation of liberation on November 29, 1944, National Day), Hoxha proclaimed on 11 February 1945 the People’s Republic of Albania.
The People’s Republic d ‘Albania
(1945 – 1991)
The Hoxha regime had a huge task ahead: to bring the ‘outside Albania centuries of obscurantism, a medieval extended up to our days.
There was thus an urgent need to bind to more advanced nations.
But the memory of centuries of foreign oppression was too deep because the state giovanme lend itself to alliances that will restrict the ‘ideological and political independence. Then comes the ballet alliance and broken-even outstanding-communist countries with the “brothers”.
Until 1948 there was a customs union and monetary union with Yugoslavia, but the split between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union prompted the only Albania and decisively towards the USSR. By destalinization, launched in starting in 1956, relations between the two states and cooled after a final rupture, which occurred in 1961, Albania approached the Chinese People’s Republic. The invasion of Soviet troops in Czechoslovakia in 1968 determined the output of Albania History from the Warsaw Pact. In the 1977-78 Albania (which in the meantime had been completely isolated from Europe), pragmatic orientation adopted by Beijing, took distances by China.
Hoxha led the rebirth of the country with iron fist, drawing up a constitution of strong Stalinist mold, banning private property and the ability to profess a faith, freed of unscrupulous political opponents, and giving life to secure, fearsome police state, espionage tasks (apparently there was involved almost half the population).
For fear of possible invasions, covered the territory of cement bunker, now dilapidated shelter of nomads and animals.
Later, however, after Hoxha’s death occurred in 1985, ‘Albania seem’ not endure longer the “dictatorship of the proletariat”, and brought a cautious opening of the country; Hoxha’s successor, Ramiz Alia, gave a start economic and political rapprochement with the West and, under the pressure of bloody rebellions burst across the country, some concessions and some reform, however, hampered by the heirs of Hoxha still widely supported in the countryside: in the 1991 election they have won a large parliamentary majority, making it uncertain and difficult process of democratization of the regime.
Meanwhile, the poorest and exasperated population begins to take the road of ‘expatriation.
Groups of ethnic Albanians 97%, 2% Greeks, Slavs 1%.
Kindly provided by
The Albania to the country more “couple” of Europe for the average age of its inhabitants. About half of the population works in agriculture. The Albania History is, along with Turkey, one of the world’s largest producers of chromium. It can also count on rich deposits of copper, nickel and iron.